Jeep History

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This is by no means a complete history. Just a guide to identify Jeeps. I probably left out some information so, just post up a correction. Thanks.
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1940 Bantam Pilot
Bantam.jpg


Using the term that has become generic in the English language, this is the undisputed first "jeep." Built by the American Bantam Car Company of Butler, Pennsylvania, it was delivered to Camp Holabird, Maryland, on September 23, 1940. The first vehicle of a 70-vehicle contract, "Old Number One" was tested thoroughly and then spent the rest of its short life as a demo vehicle. It was wrecked in a traffic accident early in 1941, sent back to Butler and disassembled. The mechanical pieces were probably incorporated into the Bantam Mark II's that were then in production. Legend has it that the unusable body sections were buried along with a pile of scrap on the Bantam grounds.

Specifications:
Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cyl 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
Torque 86 lbs-ft @ 1800 rpm
Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 1,840 lbs,



1940 Bantam BRC 60
09photo01.jpg


The Bantam BRC-60 (or Mark II) was the first revision of the Bantam pilot model. These hand-built models were part of the first 1/4-ton contract for 70 vehicles (1 pilot model + 69 additional after acceptance of the pilot model, to be distributed as follows: 40 for the Infantry, 20 for the Cavalry and 10 for the Field Artillery.). The successful tests of the Bantam pilot model revealed some weaknesses, and improvements including the more military looking, squared-off front fenders were incorporated into the additional 69 BRC-60 (Bantam Reconnaisance Car) vehicles. Only one is known to still exist, in the U.S. Army Transportation Museum at Fort Eustis, Virginia

09photo03.jpg


Specifications:
Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cyl 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
Torque 86 lbs-ft @ 1800 rpm
Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 1,940 lbs
 

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1940 Willys Quad
1940_Willys_Quad1.jpg


Willys built five Quads, according to company records, and delivered two (one with four-wheel steering) for the Army's contract competition in 1940. Its 60hp "Go-Devil" engine blew the doors off Bantam and Ford (the other two competitors) and won the contract. The Quad, however, was a heavyweight and had to go on a big-time diet to meet the Army's requirements; when re-weighed, it was ounces inside the 2,160 pound limit. The Quads have all since disappeared, but one lasted long enough to be photographed in the early 1950's. If Bantam Number One marked the beginning of the Jeep era, the Quad marked the beginning of Willys' dominance of the series.

jeep_quad_capitolsteps_375.jpg


Specifications:
Engine 134ci 4 cal L-head side valve "Go Devil"
Horsepower 60bhp @ 4000rpm (Other sources say 62-65 bhp)
Torque 105 pound-feet @ 2000 rpm
Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed (same as Bantam)
Gear Shift Mounted on steering column
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 2,423 lbs. (Other sources say 2,418 to 2,520 lbs.)



1940 Ford Pygmy
157043435NBnKZh_ph.jpg


The Pygmy was one of two vehicles built by Ford for the Army contract race in 1940, and it was accepted for testing alongside the Bantam and Willys units. The Pygmy's overall layout, including the squared-off hood, headlights on the grille, and dog-legged windshield pivots, was highly praised and became the pattern for the later Willys MB. But like the Bantam, the Pygmy fell victom to the Quad's more powerful engine. The vehicle shown, owned by the Alabama Center for Military History, is the actual Pygmy that was tested at Holabird in 1940. Of the vehicles involved in the fierce, three-way competition that marked the opening chapter of the Jeep legend, only the Pygmy and the Budd-bodied Ford prototype still survive

Pygmy.jpg


Specifications:
Engine 119.5 CID, 4 cyl, side valve 46 bhp @ 3,600rpm (Fordson Model N tractor engine)
Torque 84 lbs-ft @ 1,500 rpm
Transmission 3 speed Model A
Transfer case Spicer 2 speed (same as Bantam)
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 2,150 lbs.
 

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1940 Budd Ford
budd-pygmy-jeep-1.jpg


This Ford prototype had a body built by the Budd Corporation, which stayed closer in design to the Bantam pilot model, while the Ford engineers created a new design for the Pygmy. Perhaps Ford wanted this vehicle as a fall-back if the Army rejected its new design. At any rate, the Pygmy was indeed accepted for the tests at Camp Holabird, and the only significant action seen by the Budd-bodied prototype was in parades and war bond rallies. Shortly after the war, it disappeared until found in the California desert by Jeff Polidoro in 1998. It joins the Pygmy as one of the only two surviving 1940 pilot models, and will no doubt emerge from under its coat of yellow paint


1941 Ford GP
fordGP_W-2017501_Baydeww2.jpg


A direct descendant of the Pygmy, the Ford GP was an updated model produced under an initial contract for 1,500 vehicles each from Ford, Willys and Bantam. As Lend-Lease requirements increased and the Willys design was finalized for mass production, more GP's were ordered and Ford ended up building 4,456 units, most of which went to Lend-Lease. Contrary to popular belief, the GP did not stand for "General Purpose." GP was a Ford engineering term, "G" for a government contract vehicle and "P" for 80-inch-wheelbase Reconaissance Car.

1strunWatermarks2.jpg


Specifications:
Engine 119.5 CID, 4 cal, side valve 46 bhp @ 3,600rpm (Fordson Model N tractor engine)
Torque 84 lbs-ft @ 1,500 rpm
Transmission 3 speed Model A
Transfer case Spicer 2 speed (same as Bantam)
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 2,160 lbs.
 

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1941 Willys MA
Early_1941_Willys_MA.jpe


Willys knew that the Army would want an improved model and started development of the MA even as the Quad was being tested. In the three-way deal, 1,500 MA's were ordered. The MA was definitley an evolutionary vehicle. Very much different than the later MB, the MA featured a column shift and a host of other detail changes that put it between the Quad and the MB. The basic drivetrain was still the Warner Gear and Spicer components of the Quad, Ford and Bantam. The MA is the least common of the pre-production Willys, with only about 30 examples known to exist of the 1,553 originally built; most were sent to Russia under Lend-Lease.

154_0801_03_z+war_wigs_jeep_autopsy_us_military+1941_willys_ma.jpg


Specifications:
Engine 134ci 4 cal L-head side valve "Go Devil"
Horsepower 60bhp @ 4000rpm (Other sources say 62-65 bhp)
Torque 105 pound-feet @ 2000 rpm
Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed (same as Bantam)
Gear Shift Steering column mount
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
Wheelbase 80 inches
Weight 2,450 lbs.



1941 Bantam BRC 40
1941-american-bantam-0013.jpg


The BRC-40 was the final evolution of the Bantam design. The Army initially contracted for 1,500 units, but 2,605 were eventually assembled. Bantam ceased motor vehicle production after the last was built in December of 1941 and carried on building trailers, torpedo motors and landing gear. The BRC-40 had many fine features and was well liked by the Allied forces that used it; its light weight and nimble handling were particularly noteworthy. At least 100 BRC-40's have survived the years, making them the second most common of the pre-production 1/4-tons.

Specifications:
Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cal 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
Torque 83 pound-feet
Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
Wheelbase 79 inches
Weight 2,070 lbs
 

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1942 Willys MB and Ford GPW

mvg_www_mb_slatgrill_400.jpg


By July 1941, the War Department desired to standardize and decided to select a single manufacturer to supply them with the next order for another 16,000 vehicles. Willys won the contract mostly due to its more powerful engine (the "Go Devil") which soldiers raved about, and its lower cost and silhouette. Whatever better design features the Bantam and Ford entries had were then incorporated into the Willys car, moving it from an "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" nomenclature. For example, if the gasoline tank was directly beneath the driver's seat, combining the two main target areas into one, it would lessen the chance of a catastrophic hit.

By October 1941, it became apparent Willys-Overland could not keep up with production demand and Ford was contracted to produce them as well. The Ford car was then designated GPW, with the "W" referring to the "Willys" licensed design. During World War II, Willys produced 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Approximately 51,000 were exported to Russia under the Lend-Lease program.

The first 25,808 Willys MBs used a welded steel grille very similar to the Ford GP design, and there were a host of other differences from the later Willys. These early MBs had "Willys" embossed in the back panel. In production, the slat-grilles were given running changes until they finally evolved into the standard stamped-grille MB we know and love.

At the outset, all engines were produced by Willys but in 1942 Ford began to produce GPW engines to the Willys design. Midland Steel Corp. produced frames to the Willys specification and wre used by both Willys and Ford. Ford contracted with Murray Corp. for frames for the GPW after which Ford no longer used the Midland frames. During 1941 to 1943 Willys and Ford manufactured their own bodies, slightly different from each other. In early 1944, both Willys and Ford subcontracted their jeep bodies to American Central Body of Connersville, IN, who built the so-called "composite body" used by both manufacturers.

After about 25,000 units were produced, in early 1942 the MB/GPW was standardized with changes agreed upon by Ford, Willys and the Army. The 1941 and early 1942 production jeeps have many small differences from the later, full production models. The most visible change was the Ford nine-slot stamped grill which replaced the Willys slat grill (similar to the Ford GP) in March-April 1942.

Ford's River Rouge plant produced the first 77 GPWs with Willys engines and Midland frames in January 1942. Willys jeeps were produced in their Toledo, OH plant, while Ford had assembly operations at six plants around the country. Although small differences remained, the MB and GPW essentially met the Army's goal of being completely interchangeable in all parts. At the factories, there were Ford GPWs produced on Willys Midland frames or with Willys engines, plus other production expedients and subcontractor sharing, creating a mix of jeeps and parts to be sorted out by later generations.

During the course of the war, Ford built 277,896 GPW jeeps, and Willys built 335,531 units. Production contracts were terminated in the summer of 1945 as World War II ended. The last Ford GPW was built on 30 July 1945 and the last Willys MB rolled off the Toledo assembly line on 20 August 1945.

The Willys MB or Ford GPW jeep of World War II were externally visually the same but with many small differences in production details. The main component that distinguished a Willys-Overland MB from the Ford-built GPW is the tubular front frame cross-member on the MB as opposed to the inverted U-shaped cross-member on the GPW. A visible sign is that GPWs with Ford frames, unlike MBs or GPWs with Willys frames, had holes in the front bumper in line with the frame rails and also had holes in the rear cross member just out from the bumperettes.

gpw_holes_400.jpg


MB.jpg


Specifications:

Length 132.25 inches
Width 62 inches
Height, top up 69.75 inches
Height, top down 52 inches
Engine Willys or Ford 4 cyl L-head, 134.2 ci, 6.48:1 compression
Horsepower (net) 54 @ 4,000 rpm
Transmission Warner T-84J 3 speed synchromesh
Transfer case Dana Spicer 18 2 speed
Gear Shift Floor mounted
Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
Electrical System 6v, neg ground
Wheelbase 80 inches
Ground Clearance 8.75 inches
Approach Angle 45°
Departure Angle 35°
Weight w/o gas and water 2,337 lbs
Fording Depth 21 inches max
Tires 6.00x16 non-directional
 

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1942-1943 Ford GPA
Ford-GPA-1.jpg



As with the contract for the GPW, Ford received a contract to manufacture the amphibious GPA principally in recognition of the company's large production capacity. But development and testing was rushed, there were numerous delays in the production process, and the result was less maneuverable than the services had wanted. Still, 12,778 GPA's were built, with the squarish hull surrounding an interior similar to the GPW, and a power take-off for the propeller. Restored, seaworthy GPA's are still popular, particularly in Australia as well as the U.S


1944 Willys MLW-2

1944-mlw2_9M8_PakWheels(com).jpg

In late 1943, the U.S. Army contracted with Willys-Overland to build a 1/2-ton jeep providing greater payload and mobility over the swampy jungle terrain of the Southwest Pacific. The prototype MLW-1 (M meaning "government", LW meaning "long wheelbase") was apparently never completed, but photographs of the MLW-2 "Jungle Jeep" pilot model appear in Fred Coldwell's book Preproduction Civilian Jeeps. The wheelbase was 92 inches, and overall length was 142-7/16 inches. It used the same Go-Devil engine and T84J transmission as the production MB. The two MLW-2 pilot models had slightly different transfer cases, both with 2.43 low range. The body incorporated several features which would later appear in the Civilian Jeep program, including a tailgate, closed underseat toolboxes, and a side-mounted spare tire holder similar to the CJ-1. (There was a second spare tire location inside the body, behind the front seats.) The storage compartment behind the rear wheel was not included on any CJ.
 

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1944 CJ1

CJ1.JPG


The civilian Jeep project began in 1944 when Willys-Overland had some resources to spare beyond war-oriented production. Blueprints had been drawn up by February 1944 and a pilot model, dubbed the CJ-1, was up and running by May. It wore a cast-bronze hood emblem that said "AGRIJEEP." It's clear the CJ-1 was an MB pulled off the line and modified with a tailgate, drawbar, civilian-type top, a spare tire mounted on the passenger side, and lower gearing in the axles and transfer case. According to Fred Coldwell's Preproduction Civilian Jeeps, the factory also tested one or more MB Agrijeeps that kept their standard MB military body but used the 2.43 low range transfer case and had 5.38 gears in their axles. No CJ-1 or MB Agrijeeps are known to survive.


1944-1945 CJ2

CJ2Ellis.jpg


The body, chassis and much of the drivetrain of the CJ-2 were built especially for these units, even though many MB parts were also utilized, including the front grille. The CJ-2's, perhaps 45 in total, were built in two distinct series: pilot models and standardized preproduction models. All had tailgates, 5.38 gears, lower transfer case gearing and drawbars. The first two pilot models had T84 transmissions, but all the rest of the CJ-2's had the new T90 column shift. Many were equipped with PTO's, governors, and other equipment such as air compressors, post hole diggers or mowers. These rigs were used at various agricultural test stations around the country, and the name plates on the dash of the pilot models still carried the "Agrijeep" name coined for the CJ-1. The pilot models also had the spare tire mounted on the passenger side, forward of the rear wheel well, and some had brass "JEEP" plaques on the hood sides, windshield frame and rear panel. The preproduction series had "JEEP" stamped into the sheet metal, and the spare was moved behind the wheelwell.
 

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1945-1949 CJ-2A

gadd_1945_willys_cj2a_jeep_front.jpg


CJ2A.jpg


The first of the production CJs (Civilian Jeeps), 214,202 CJ-2As were produced. The earliest versions used a column shift, until early 1946. The earliest units also used the MB's full-floating rear axle and had military tool notches in the body. Unlike the MBs, the CJs used a tailgate and had "Willys" embossed on the hood sides and windshield frame. The beefier T-90 gearbox replaced the old T-84. CJ-2A sales were very brisk, especially considering the almost endless supply of MBs on the war surplus market. A few CJ-2As were built concurrently with the later CJ-3A

Production Information
Year Starting s/n Ending s/n Units built
1945 10001 11824 1824
1946 11825 83379 71554
1947 83380 148458 65078
1948 148459 222581 74122
1949 222582 224764 2182

Specifications:
http://www.thecj2apage.com/specs.html
 

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1946-1965 Jeep Wagon

1963_jeep_willys01_dfea_im.jpg


willyswagon.jpg


The Willys Jeep Station Wagon is the first all-steel station wagon and is arguably the world's first sport utility vehicle (SUV). It was designed in 1946 by industrial designer Brooks Stevens and stayed in production until 1963. The steel body was efficient to mass-produce, as easy to maintain and safer than the real wood-bodied station wagon versions at the time. This was one of Willys most successful post-World War II models.

The Willys Jeep Station Wagon was introduced in 1946 as just the 463 model, powered by the L-134 Go-Devil flathead four cylinder. The 663 model, powered by the L-148 Lightning straight six, was brought in for 1948. Four-wheel drive became an option in 1949.

1950 saw a number of changes. The flat grille was replaced by a pointed v-shape design with five horizontal bars across the vertical ones. New engines were available, too. The 473 model got the new F-134 Hurricane, and the 673 model got a new 161 cu in (2.6 L) version of the Lightning six. Another big change this year was the addition of a sedan delivery model to the lineup.

In 1952, the flathead Lightning was dropped in favor of the F-161 Hurricane, installed in the 685 model.

The 1954 model year was the first under Kaiser's ownership. The 6-226 Super Hurricane, a flathead inline six, was introduced. This was a version of the Kaiser Supersonic/Continental Red Seal engine.

A number of new models were added in 1955. The 6-226 model lineup gained stripped chassis, flat face cowl, cowl/windshield, and ambulance models. The 475 line received only the cowl/windshield.

In 1958 a new Maverick model was introduced, a comparatively more luxurious version of the two-wheel drive wagon. It could be had with either the four or the six-cylinder engine.

The 6-230 Tornado OHC engine was introduced in midyear 1962, replacing the flathead.

Production ended in 1965, as the Willys model had been phased out by the Jeep Wagoneer. Over 300,000 wagons and its variants were built.

Engines

* 1946-50 L4-134 Go-Devil
* 1948-50 L6-148 Lightning
* 1950-65 F4-134 Hurricane
* 1950-51 L6-161 Lightning
* 1952-54 F6-161 Hurricane
* 1954-62 L6-226 Super Hurricane
* 1962-65 6-230 Tornado
 

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1947-1965 Jeep Truck

55willys23198-1.JPG


1947_jeep_truck.jpg


The Willys Pickup was similar to the Willys Jeep Wagon and the VJ-2 and VJ-3 Willys Jeepster. It was introduced in 1947, with model designations of 2T and 4T. These trucks were equipped with the 134 cubic inch "Go-Devil" engine and the three-speed Borg-Warner T-90 transmission from the CJ-2A. The truck received a facelift in 1950 and became the 473, with the new "Hurricane" four-cylinder engine as an option. This model introduced the v-shaped front end with five horizontal bars, as well as an updated gauge cluster. The steps on the side of the pickup box were deleted. After 1950, the two-wheel drive model was discontinued. In 1953, the model designation became 475 and the grille bars were reduced to three. A 226 cubic inch six-cylinder 6-226 model was introduced in 1954, and sales of 475 models dropped considerably. The 6-226 was dropped in 1962 in favor of the 6-230 Tornado OHC engine.

Engines:

* 1947-1950, 1956 - 134 CID (2.2 L) L4-134 Go-Devil I4
* 1950-1965 - 134 CID (2.2 L) F4-134 Hurricane I4
* 1954-1962 - 226 CID (3.7 L) 6-226 Super Hurricane I6
* 1962-1965 - 230 CID (3.8 L) 6-230 Tornado I6

It was available with only one transmission, the Borg-Warner T-90 three-speed manual. A Spicer 18 transfer case was used on 4WD models. The heavy duty Timken 51540 was an early rear axle option, otherwise the Dana 53 was standard. The front axle was a Dana 25. A 5.38:1 differential ratio was standard, and a 4.88:1 was optional.

Over 200,000 of these trucks were manufactured
 

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1949-1951 Jeepster "VJ"

jeep_vj.jpg

1949_Jeepster.jpg
.

Realizing a gap in their product line up, Willys developed the Jeepster to crossover from their "utilitarian" type truck vehicles, to the passenger automobile market. The car was originally only offered with rear-wheel drive, thus limiting its appeal with traditional Jeep customers. While its distinctive boxy styling (created by industrial designer Brooks Stevens) was a hit with critics, it did not catch on with the intended market segment. Sales were also limited by sparse advertising. In the end, 19,132 original VJ Jeepsters were produced (1948 - 10,326; 1949 - 2,960; 1950 - 5,836).

The VJ Jeepster was powered by the 62 horsepower (46 kW) "Go Devil" engine, a 134 cu in (2.2 L) straight-4 also used in the CJ. A 3-speed manual transmission with optional overdrive was used, as were drum brakes all around. The vehicle's front end and single transverse leaf spring suspension, was from the Willys Station Wagon, as was the rear driveline. The flat-topped rear fenders were copied from the Jeep truck line, as were the pair of longitudinal rear leaf springs.

Engines:

* 1948-1950 - L134 Go Devil I4 — 134.1 CID (2,197 cc)
* 1949-1950 - L148 Lightning I6 —148.5 CID (2,433 cc)
* 1950 - F134 Hurricane I4 —134.2 CID (2,199 cc)
* 1950 - L161 Lightning I6 —161 CID (2,638 cc)
 

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1949-1953 CJ-3A

gpeters2.jpg


Direct descendant of the CJ-2A, the Universal Jeep CJ-3A was launched in the Fall of 1948. For the casual observer the 3A differed from the 2A only by its new one-piece windshield. But there were subtler differences: where Willys-Overland had moved the driver seat further back on the 2A, perhaps to accommodate husky farmers as well as thin GI's, they did it again with the 3A.

The windshield was simplified with the wipers at the bottom, and made taller for more headroom. And the suspension was beefed up a bit, perhaps in answer to calls from the agricultural community who by now had a wide array of implements to choose from, designed to be mounted on and operated by a Jeep CJ.


From Willys brochure The lack of ads for the CJ-3A except in the farm journals, at the same time as W-O was lavishly advertising its trucks and station wagons in full-color ads in the mainstream press, would suggest the community to which the 3A was aimed. The dash-mounted info plates with their pictures of farm and industry side by side, also demonstrate the markets in which W-O was hoping for sales.

This was the last of the "low-hood" flat-fendered CJs. Only a few changes, mostly visual, marked the CJ-3A from the 2A. The windshield is a one-piece design and has a vent just below it. In its four-year run, 131,843 CJ-3As were manufactured. The 3A got an axle upgrade from a Spicer 41-2 to a Spicer 44-2. A stripped "Farm Jeep" option was available for 1951-53 models; these featured a standard drawbar and PTO. In 1953, the CJ-3A was built alongside the "high-hood", F-head powered CJ-3B.

The CJ-3A used the "Go Devil" L-Head 134 I4 engine. The transmission in the CJ-3A was the T-90 3 speed sending power through a Dana 18 transfer case. The front axle was the Dana 25, and either the Dana 41 or the Dana 44 rear axle.
 

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1950 CJ-V35

CJV35U.JPG


The CJ-V35, or "Truck V35/U" as it was referred to by the U.S. Navy, was perhaps the ultimate U.S. Marine Corps Jeep. It could be driven underwater, and was apparently intended to carry forward observers to direct naval gunfire during amphibious landings. It was based on a request from the Navy and Marines, whereas the MC (M-38) was from Army sources. Some parts developed for the V35 carried over into MC production. It was an adaptation of the CJ-3A, with 6-volt electrical system, plus 12-volt generator between the front seats to power a MX566A/MRC radio set carried in place of the rear seat. The gas tank and toolbox were modified to clear the generator. Other identifying details include the protruding sealed headlights, tow hooks on the front, bumperettes in the rear, and lifting rings front and rear. It had MB-style combat wheels, and a hood stamped with "Willys" but with the M38-style snorkel coutout. One thousand units were delivered by Willys between March and June 1950, just before the start of hostilities in Korea.
 

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1950-1955 M38

M38Hodgson.jpg


A direct knockoff of the CJ-3A, the M38 was upgraded for GI use by a stronger frame and suspension, a 24-volt electrical system, and a multitude of military accoutrements. These rigs saw combat in Korea, but production was low at 61,423 units from 1950-52. An export version was built from 1953 to 1955 for foreign military forces. The headlight guards, blackout lights, battery panel on the cowl and tool notches on the body (passenger side) are the way to ID them. Some were equipped with Ramsey winches.

When compared to the World War II Willys MB / Ford GPW, the M38 is a little larger, with better seating for the driver and passenger, and uses larger tires (7:00x16). It shares a 24 volt waterproofed electrical system with other post-war M-series vehicles, requiring a second battery to boost the voltage. The L-head, 4 cyl. 60 hp. engine of the MB was improved with a gear drive camshaft and was mated to a T90 transmission and 5:38 axle gears.

id_m38_01_700.jpg




1950 X-98

X98.JPG


The Jeep bearing the experimental vehicle number X-98 had flat fenders, but with a grille and hood not unlike the eventual CJ-5 grille. It may have been the first F-head-powered Jeep utility, built in 1949 or 1950 under Willys Engineering Release 5607. It had civilian features such as a tailgate, side-mounted spare, and "WILLYS" stamped on the hood, but photos indicate that X-98 was also tested by the military, perhaps several times. Photos taken in 1950 show it labelled on the bumper as X-98, whereas test photos from 1951 show it as vehicle 205. It was even referred to as the CJ-4M, although that designation seems to be more correctly belong to the slightly later military prototype.
 

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1953-1968 CJ-3B

MaurerTrailerLeft400.jpg


One limitation of the wartime jeeps, and the postwar civilian models CJ-2A and CJ-3A, was the limited horsepower of the 4-cylinder L-head "Go-Devil" engine. The new F-head "Hurricane" engine, which Willys began putting in its larger vehicles in 1949, had its intake valves in the head rather than the engine block, allowing them to be larger. The first Jeep big enough for the engine was the military M38A1 in 1951. (The M38A1 was also the debut of the new "round-fender" body design that would be used for most of the Jeeps of the next five decades.) The first civilian Universal Jeep with the Hurricane engine was the new "high-hood" CJ-3B

ExportCatalogPage.gif


The CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. It introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of 155,494 produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998, but Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps today.

http://www.film.queensu.ca/cJ3B/SerialNos.html

http://www.film.queensu.ca/cJ3B/Video.html

Specifications:
* G.V.W. 3500 lbs. (1587.5 kg)
* Curb weight: 2243 lbs (1017.4 kg) (2418 lbs. on M606).
* Overall length: 129-29/32 in. (3.30 m)
* Overall width: 68-7/8 in. (175 cm)
* Overall height (top of windshield): 66-1/4 in. (169 cm.)
* Tread front and rear: 48-7/16 in. (123 cm)
* Wheelbase: 80 in. (203 cm.)
* Front / Rear Overhang: 20.59 in. / 22.31 in.
* Tailgate: 36 in. Wide x 19.25 in. High
* Ground Clearance: 8 in. (20.3 cm)
* Load Space: 32 in. x 52.315 in. x 14.125 in.

* Engine: "Hurricane" F-head, 134 cu.in. (2.2 liter), 4 cylinders
* Cooling system capacity 11 qt. (10.4 ltr.) (12 qt. with heater)
* Electricity: Battery 50 Amp. Hour 12 volt, Generator 35 Amp.
* Front axle: Dana/Spicer 25, 27 or 27A, Full-floating hypoid, Ratio: 4.27:1 (5.38:1 optional)
* Rear axle: Dana/Spicer 44, Semi-floating hypoid, Ratio: 4.27:1 (5.38:1 optional)
* Brakes: Hydraulic, 9 in. drum diameter x 1.75 in., 117.8 sq. in. braking area.
* Clutch: 8.5 in. Auborn or Rockford single dry plate with torsional damping, 72 sq. in. area. (Optional Auborn single dry plate, 9.25 in. dia. )
* Transfer case: Spicer 18, 2 speeds, 1.00:1 and 2.46:1 (26 tooth input gear and 1-1/8 in. intermediate shaft up to serial number 54-12506; 29 tooth input gear and 1-1/4 in. intermediate shaft after serial number 54-12506)
* Transmission: Warner T-90 3-speed syncromesh, Ratios: 1st-3.339:1 (or 2.798:1), 2nd-1.551:1, 3rd- 1.00:1, Reverse-3.798:1

* Frame: Heavy steel channel sides, 4.125 in. depth x 1.937 in. width, with 6 cross members (possibly five on early models). Length 122.656 in.
* Fuel tank 10-1/2 gallons (38.75 ltr.)
* Shock absorbers: Telescopic hydraulic. Monroe, 10.75 in. dia. double acting.
* Springs: Semi-elliptical leaf type. Front: 36 1/4 in. x 1 3/4 in., 10 leaves, Rate 260 lb./in. Rear: 42 in. x 1 3/4 in., 9 leaves, Rate 190 lb./in. (Optional 11-leaf Heavy-Duty, Spring Rate: 225 lb./in.), (10 leaves, Rate 400 lb./in. on some M606 models).
* Steering: Cam and lever, overall ratio 17.9 to 1 (Ross Model T-12 with 14-12:1 ratio on early models)
* Tires: 6.00x16: 4 ply (7.00x15 optional, also 7.00x16 on military M6060 version)
* Wheels: Kelsey-Hayes 4.50x16 inch, 5 stud
 

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1950 CJ-4

CJ4photo.jpg


This is the "missing link" between the CJ-3A/3B and the CJ-5. Only one unit was built in 1950, and it was one of the first prototype Jeeps to carry the new Willys "Hurricane" F-head engine. It combined the rear of a CJ-3A, the hood that would be seen on the MD model, and a unique grille and skirted fenders on an 81-inch wheelbase. Mechanically, it was pretty standard Jeep. Carrying the engineering code X-151, the rig was sold to a Willys employee in 1955 who worked it for 12 years. It then remained in storage for 25 years, before recently being sold again



1950 CJ-4M

M38E1.jpg


The CJ-4M military prototype had the same front end design (never used on a production-model Jeep) as the CJ-4, with skirted fenders and a unique front clip. Blackout lamps replaced the marker lights, and headlamp guards as on the M-38 were also fitted. This pilot for the M-38A1 (model MD), probably built in 1950, has also been referred to as the M-38E1. There were also two CJ-4MA long-wheelbase prototypes with the same front end, which apparently preceded the M-170 ambulance
 

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1952-1971 M38A1

M38A1.jpg


The M38A1 Truck, Utility, 1/4 Ton, 4x4 was introduced in 1952 as the military improvement upon the M38 Jeep. The M38A1 was manufactured by Willys where it was known as the Model MD.

The M38A1 featured rounded front fenders, a contoured hood, two-piece windshield, top-mounted windshield wipers, and a new "Hurricane" F-Head 4-cycle, 4-cylinder engine and Warner T90 transmission. It had a crew of one and could carry three passengers or 500 pounds payload.

The M38A1 military jeep is the model that inspired the CJ-5 civilian jeep. It differed from the CJ-5 in that it had a stronger frame and suspension, reversed front spring shackles, standardized military instruments, and 24-volt electrical system. A provision for a machine gun mounting post was installed on the floor of the body tub.

id_m38a1_w106.jpg


The M-38A1 closely resembled the CJ-5 civilian model jeep. It differed from the CJ-5 in that it had a stronger frame and suspension, reversed front spring shackles, standardized GI instruments, and 24-volt electrical system.

The M38A1 was manufactured by Willys, and had an F-head, 4-cycle, 4-cylinder engine. It had a crew of one and could carry three passengers.
 

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1952-1971 M83A1C

M38A1C.JPG


M38A1C was the U.S. military designation for an MD modified to carry a rear-mounted 105mm or 106 mm recoilless rifle. Surplus examples would have been sold with the large weapon removed, but distinctive features that might remain include: a windshield with a center gap to allow the barrel of the rifle to rest horizontally, a cowl-mounted spare tire to provide clearance for the breech of the rifle and storage for shells accessible from the rear, and an M75A1 or M79 mount. There was a similar M38A1D which was used briefly in 1962 to carry the "Davy Crockett" tactical nuclear cannon.



1953 BC Bobcat

Bobcat.jpg


The Bobcat, or "Aero Jeep" as it was going to be officially called, was designed to be a 1500 pound Air Borne Combat Vehicle which would share as many parts as possible with the M-38 and M-38A1. The frame was apparently derived from the MB frame tooling to save costs, and the prototype weighed 1475 pounds, a little less than the experimental MBL (lightweight) of World War II. Like the MBL, the Bobcat did not go into production, and the concept of a small, lightweight combat vehicle was soon taken a step further in the aluminum-bodied M-422 Mighty Mite.
 

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1955-1964 DJ-3A

DJ3ATennis300.JPG


The two-wheel drive Willys DJ-3A "Dispatcher" has a lot in common with the CJ-3B, besides dating from the same era. It was an inexpensive Jeep whose design was largely an efficient, practical recycling of existing tooling and technology. And it is largely unknown today in North America; people are always trying to figure out what this Jeep is.

The DJ made its debut in 1955, advertised both as a convertible recreational vehicle (a bit ahead of its time) and as America's Lowest Priced Delivery Vehicle (80K JPEG). Designed around the body style and L-134 engine of the former CJ-3A, the Dispatcher was the first Jeep since the early CJ-2A to have a steering column-mounted gearshift. Another distinguishing characteristic was the 4-bolt wheels

In 1959 it was offered in the Surrey Gala version, but it had more success as a no-nonsense working vehicle.

ThreeGalas600.JPG


SurreyBrochure.JPG
 
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