Toyota History

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It's not as detailed as the Jeep thread so, please add more info if I have missed anything (after I get done). I'll reopen the thread once I finish everything. Thanks for your patience. :thumbsup:

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In 1941 the Japanese Imperial Army occupied the Philippines, where they obtained a Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a 1/2 ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

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Toyota BJ 1951-1955

First generation - Model BJ and FJ (1951–1955)
First generation Production 1951-1955
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
Layout FR layout
Wheelbase 2650 mm (104.3 in)

* 1950 - The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
* 1951 - The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4-liter six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 85 hp (63 kW) at 3600 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
* 1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mt. Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.
* 1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.). The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:
o BJ-T (Touring),
o BJ-R (Radio),
o BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).
* 1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor - Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls.
* 1954 - The 125 hp, 3.9-liter Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
o BJ-T (Touring),
o BJ-R (Radio),
o BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
o FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

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20 Series (1955–1960)
Second generation - 20 Series Production 1955-1960
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station Wagon
Layout FR layout
Wheelbase 2710 mm (106.7 in)

* 1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 3.9-liter six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.
* 1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ-25 production started in Brazil being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
* 1959 - The first Toyota vehicles were exported to Australia initially for use in mines, dam construction, and snowy areas. 4-door Station Wagon, FJ35V was added.

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The Toyota FJ40 is the model designation for a Toyota Land Cruiser 40 series made from 1960 until 1984. Most 40 series Land Cruisers were built as two-door vehicles with approximately the same dimensions as a Jeep CJ.

The model was also available under the BJ40 / 41 / 42 ( short wheelbase ),BJ43 / 44 / 46 ( middle wheelbase ) or HJ45 / 47 ( long wheelbase ) designation where it had a Diesel engine.

References to the series in this article will be to the J40 series unless referring to one of the petrol ( FJ40 / 42 - 2WD ) or diesel ( BJ4# / HJ4# ) models specifically.

* 1960 - J40 series launched. (wheelbase 2285 mm (90 in) / 2430 mm (96 in) / 2650 mm (104 in)
* 1965? - Longer wheelbase (2950 mm (116 in)), FJ45-B, pickup and cab-chassis were added
* 1967 - End of 4-door FJ45V (I) (w/b 2650 mm (104 in)) production, replaced by FJ55 Station wagon

- 2door FJ45-B renamed FJ45 (II) (w/b 2950 mm (116 in))

* 1973? - HJ45 launched with the H , 3.6 litre in-line 6 cylinder Diesel engine.
* 1974 - BJ40 / 43 launched with the B, 3.0 litre in-line 4 cylinder diesel engine.
* 1976 - Disc brakes on the front axle
* 1979 - Power steering (only F models) and air conditioning added to the options, gear ratios modified to be more freeway friendly
* 1980 - HJ47 launched with a 4.0 liter 6 cylinder diesel engine. End of HJ45 production

- BJ42/46 and BJ45 launched with a 3.4 liter 4 cylinder diesel engine

* 1981 - Power steering added on the BJ models to the options
* 1984 - End of J40 series production (replaced by J70 series)
* 2001 - End of Bandeirante production

* The J40 / 41 / 42 was a two-door short wheelbase four wheel drive vehicle, with either a soft or a hard-top ( V ). It was available with various petrol or diesel (from 1974) engines over its lifetime. It was replaced on most markets from 1984 by the J70 series ( 70 / 71 ).
o The FJ42 is 4X2 model, for only The Middle East.
* The J43 / J44 / 46 was an extremely rare two-door medium wheelbase four wheel drive vehicle, with either a soft or a hard-top ( V ). It was replaced on most markets from 1984 by the J70 series ( 73 / 74 ).
* The J45 / 47 was a long wheelbase four wheel drive vehicle, available in two door hard-top or four door station wagon or two door pickup models. The 4door station wagon model ( FJ45V-I ) was the shortest-lived of the J40 series, as it was replaced by the FJ55G / V in 1967.
* The Bandeirante ( OJ50 / 55 / 55 B / 55 2B, BJ50 / 55 / 55 B / 55 2B ) was a J40 series built in Brazil by Toyota do Brasil Ltda from 1959-2001. Identical to the BJ40 in almost every respect, it had a few stylistic modifications to the grille and used a Mercedes-Benz diesel engine ( later replaced by Toyota 14B inline 4 direct injection Diesel engine ) for much of its production life.

Over the years Toyota has changed the engines used in the J40 series. The B series motor is a 4 cylinder diesel, and the H series a 6 cylinder diesel. The diesel engined trucks were never sold to the general public in the USA, though some found their way in as mine trucks. The engines are similar, within the series. For example, the F and 2F engines share many of the same parts, however. H and 2H are almost another thing. There are individual models within the engine series, for example, there is an F125 engine, and an F155 engine, all in the F series with different power ratings.

* Most J40 series vehicles could have their roof and doors removed, and with a folding windscreen this allowed for complete open-air experience.
* The J40 Series also featured folding jump seats, attached to the roll bar behind the passenger and drivers seats. These folding seats not only made carrying another 2 passengers possible, but also allowed for maximum cargo space, as opposed to the folding rear seat in the Jeep CJ series.
* Original factory winches were driven directly from the transfer case (known as P.T.O. or power take off) powered by the engine. Later models had an optional electric winch.
* Today the J40 Series is prized for its compatibility with General Motors products. Not only does the J40 accept the same 6 lug wheel as GM, but the transmission is also compatible with the Chevrolet small block engines, including the 307, 327 and 350 cubic inch models. This allows for engine changes and upgrades, a viable option as surplus engines and engine components for the original J40s are becoming scarce.

* 1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 125 hp, 3.9 liter F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz built Diesel engine generating 78 hp.
* 1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles. The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
* 1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
* 1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
* 1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide. The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models and it had a six-cylinder H engine.
* 1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0-liter B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than it's 3.9-liter gasoline version. Note: the new B diesel engine was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ.
* 1975 - The 3.9-liter gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2-liter 2F unit. The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
* 1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55. The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
* 1977 - The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
* 1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
* 1979 - United States-version FJ40s were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights. Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time. The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2-liter 2B only in Japan.



FJ45 Wagon:

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55 Series This model was available in North America from 1969 to 1980. It appeared with an F engine, and then was replaced with the 2F version in 1975. It is a station wagon with a narrower appearance than the 40 series.

* 1967 - Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2710 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
* Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

For some ugly comes to mind: for others unique, even beautiful. Clearly the FJ55 did not originate as a vehicle to make a man or woman look more glamorous, but to protect and enable and take the spirit of adventure to a new level. And, it gets better with time.

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1979-1983 Toyota Truck

The SR5 option is now available on the truck. With its 5-speed manual transmission and powerful engine, the SR5 was intended to appeal to a new type of customer, the sport-truck buyer.

The 1979 model changes (noted as the 4th generation) were the biggest yet. The emphasis now was on passenger comfort while retaining its reputation as a true workhorse. The truck came in two wheel bases: short, and long, creating a real customized feel for the consumer.

The biggest development comes as the introduction of 4 wheel drive. Prior to this year, all of the Toyota Trucks were 2 wheel drive. From this point forward, the 4x2 and 4x4 trucks are a separate product line. Most major modifications from this point forward are the same between the 4x2 and 4x4 unless otherwise noted. The biggest exception to this is that the 4WD model was only available in a 4 speed manual transmission. It was modeled after the Land Cruiser, with a solid front axel, leaf springs on all wheels, and a rugged time tested frame. Aftermarket modification kits such as suspension and body lifts, made the Toyota Truck a huge hit with off-roaders.

The brand new 4WD model is a huge hit, winning the "4WD of the Year" award by Pickup, Van $ 4WD, "4WD Vehicle of the Year" by Off-Road, and "Toughest Truck of the Year" by 4x4 and Off-Road Vehicles.


The Toyota "Legend" can now be found under the hood. The 22R engine that has made the Toyota Truck so dependable is born in the form of a 2.4L gasoline engine. In the same year, a 2.2L diesel engine was now available as well. Body modifications included the "one touch" tailgate.


A 5-speed manual transmission is now available on the 4WD Truck.

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60 Series (1980–1990)
Fifth generation - 60 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62LG)
Production 1980-1990
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara, Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door stationwagon
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 4.0L 154 hp I6, 4.2L 135 hp 2F petrol* I6, 4L 144 hp 3F petrol* I6, 4L 102 hp 2H diesel* I6, 4L 136 hp 12H-T turbodiesel* I6 (* Japanese, Australian, and Euro models)
Transmission(s) 4-speed manual (H41F or H42F), 4-speed automatic (A440F), and in non-U.S. models, a 5-speed (5th overdrive) upgrade (H55F)
Wheelbase 2730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1750 mm (68.9 in)

* 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 litre 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 litre 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.
* 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana.
* 1984 - This was the final year for the 40. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replace Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
* 1984 - Alongside the 60, the Toyota LandCruiser 70 Series were introduced.
* 1985 - The Direct-injection 12H-T and 13B-T turbodiesel engine were introduced.
* 1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
* 1990 - The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60. The 80 was initially offered with a choice of three engines; the 3F-E six-cylinder petrol engine, a six-cylinder the 1 Hz diesel and 1HD-T direct injection turbodiesel.
* 1990 - All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
* The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions, Venezuela is one of them, the Sixth generation is sold under the nickname of "Machito" (MACHO in Spanish is a very strong man, MACHITO is his son. English) and the Seventh being nicknamed "Autana" (After a mountain in the Gran Sabana region of Venezuela).[citation needed] The 70 series (6th generation) is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door medium wheelbase, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door utility.

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1984-1988 Truck


The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Also two diesel engines were offered, the 2L and the turbocharged 2L-T. The diesels were discontinued in the U.S. after the 1985 model year, for unknown reasons. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic front locking hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.


* 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 rpm and 129 ft·lbf (174 N·m) at 2800 rpm
* 1984-1986 2.2 L 1L (2188 cc)Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 rpm and 93 ft·lbf (126 N·m) (SR5 long bed only)
* 1984-1985 - 2.4L (2446 cc) Diesel I4 2L SOHC, 83 hp (62 kW) at 4200 rpm and 122 ft·lbf (165 N·m) at 2400 rpm; 2L-T (2446 cc) SOHC, 92 hp (69 kW) at 4000 rpm and 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) at 2400 rpm
* 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 112 hp (78 kW) at 4800 rpm and 137 ft·lbf (185 N·m) at 2800 rpm
* 1986-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 rpm and 173 ft·lbf (234 N·m) at 2800 rpm
* 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 145 hp (112 kW) @ 4800 rpm; 180 ft·lbf @ 3400 rpm


The 1984 model year represents the 5th generation of the Truck. Changes to the model continue along the car-like feel of the Truck. The Xtracab is now available for storage behind the seats, and the diesel and 22R engines both were available in a turbo-charged version.

4WD Trucks now come with an available option of "Shift on the Fly". This is a system where the front hubs can be locked automatically, without having to exit the vehicle.

4WD Trucks now have an available 4 speed electronically controlled transmission.

With the affordability of gasoline engines, the diesel engines are discontinued. To give the gas engines a little more boost, the Turbo-charged engine was developed. All trucks now come with Independent Front Suspension (IFS).

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1984-1989 4Runner


The Toyota pickup (upon which the 4Runner was originally based) underwent a major redesign in 1983 for the 1984 model year. Many other automakers were introducing mid-size SUVs in the mid 1980s (e.g., Ford Bronco II, Chevrolet S-10 Blazer) and the pressure mounted on Toyota to develop a competing model. Instead of developing an entirely new vehicle, Toyota took their existing short-bed pickup frame, made some simple modifications, and added an open one-piece body with a removable fiberglass top (much like the full-size Ford Bronco and Chevrolet K5 Blazer).

Thus, the first generation 4Runner is nearly mechanically identical to the Toyota pickup. All first generation 4Runners had two doors and were indistinguishable from the pickups from the dashboard forward. Nearly all changes were to the latter half of the body; in fact, because the rear springs were not upgraded to cope with the additional weight of the rear seats and fiberglass top, these early models tend to suffer from sagging rear suspensions.

The first 4Runners were introduced in 1984 as 1984 1/2 models. For this first year, all models were equipped with black or white fiberglass tops. An SR5 trim package was offered that upgraded the interior: additional gauges, better fabrics, and a rear seat were standard with the package. All 1984 models were equipped with the carbureted 2.4 L 22R engine and were all available with a four wheel drive system that drove the front wheels through a solid front axle (although this would be changed in 1986, much to the chagrin of many off-road enthusiasts).

1985 saw the arrival of the electronically fuel-injected 2.4 L 22R-E I4 engine (though the carbureted engine remained available until 1988). Additionally, rear seats were available in all 1985 4Runner trim levels, not just the more upscale SR5.

In 1986, all American-market Toyota pickup trucks (and the 4Runner) underwent a major design change as the suspension was changed from a solid front axle to an independent front suspension. Track width was also increased by three inches. These changes made the trucks more comfortable on-road, and improved stability and handling. However, this change arguably decreased the truck's off-road capabilities. Outside the US, the Hilux Surf (similar to the 4Runner) also gained the new independent suspension design, marketed as Hi-Trac. The pickups in those markets retained the more rugged and capable, if less refined, solid axle configuration. The 4Runner grille changed from the three segment type to the two segment grille on all 4Runners in 1986. Tops were color-matched on blue, red and some gold 4Runners, while other body colors were still sold with white or black tops. During 1984-1986 many 4Runners were imported to the US without rear seats. With only two seats the vehicle could be classified as a truck (rather than a sport vehicle) and could skirt the higher customs duties placed upon sport and pleasure vehicles. Most had aftermarket seats and seat belts added by North American dealers after they were imported.

A turbocharged version of the 22R-E engine (the 22R-TE) was also introduced in 1986, although this engine is significantly rarer than the base 22R-E. It appears that all turbocharged 4Runner models sold in the US were equipped with an automatic transmission, though a five-speed manual could still be ordered in the turbocharged pickups. Most Turbo 4Runners were equipped with the SR5 package, and all turbo trucks had as standard a heavier rear differential. Low-option models had a small light in the gauge cluster to indicate turbo boost, while more plush vehicles were equipped with an all-digital gauge cluster that included a boost gauge. Turbocharged and naturally aspirated diesel engines were also available in the pickups at this time as well, but it appears that no diesel-powered 4Runners were imported to the United States.

In 1988, the 22R-E engine was joined by an optional 3.0 L V6 engine, the 3VZ-E. This engine was significantly larger and more powerful than the original 4-cylinder offering. Trucks sold with the V6 engine were equipped with the same heavy duty rear differential that was used in the turbocharged trucks, as well as a completely new transmission and transfer case; the transfer case was chain driven, and created less cab noise than the old gear-driven unit used behind the four cylinder engine.

Small cosmetic and option changes were made in 1989, but the model was left largely untouched in anticipation of the replacement model then undergoing final development.

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80 Series (1990–1998)
Seventh generation - 80 Series 1990-1994 Toyota Land Cruiser (US)
Also called Toyota Burbuja (Colombia Ver.)
Toyota Autana
Lexus LX
Production 1990-1997
Assembly ARACO
Toyota,Aichi, Japan - Cumaná, Venezuela
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) Diesel 4.2L I6
Turbo Diesel 4.2L I6
4.5L 212 hp I6
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4780 mm (188.2 in) (1990-94)
4820 mm (189.8 in) (1995-97)
Width 1830 mm (72 in) (1990-91)
1930 mm (76 in) (1992-97)
Height 1785 mm (70.3 in) (1990-91)
1870 mm (73.6 in) (1995-97)
1860 mm (73.2 in) (1992-94)

The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1995. The Land Cruiser was made into the models called the Burbuja in Colombia, and Autana.

* 1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ) , and a six-cylinder SOHC turbo-charged engine (1HD-T). Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles. The 80 was introduced to the Australian market with two diesel and a four litre inline six-cylinder petrol carb engine.(3FE Engine)(derived from the earlier 2F petrol motor from the 60 series.)
* 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer.Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option.
* 1994 - A limited edition Landcruiser Blue Marlin was introduced into the Australian Market and only 500 where made, limited to Australia.They have 4.5L petrol motors. The car is Blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo on the back door.They were standard GLX models but as this was the Blue Marlin it had more features such as altimeters, power windows, leather trim, manual or automatic, chrome handles and sidesteps and a limited Bull Bar which is very hard to find these days.
* 1995 - Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
* 1996 - In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. Alongside the 70 and 80, the 90 Prado was added. The 90 Prado was made by Tahara Plant, available as a 3-door short wheelbase and 5-door long wheelbase version with either the 5VZ-FE petrol engine (24-valve six-cylinder, 3.4-litre), the 3RZ-FS (four-cylinder 2.7-litre) petrol engine or the 1KZ-TE turbodiesel (four-cylinder 3.0-litre) and 5L diesel(four-cylinder 3.0-litre). The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX.
* 1997- A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey sidelines and grilles. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colors.
* 1997- An unknown number of FZJ-80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in Antique Sage Pearl (Often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badging, a numeralized badge on the centre console, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey. It is incorrect to claim that all 40th Anniversary trucks came with every available option. While many did include the highly desired electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks and running boards, there are some examples that did not have many of these extras.
* 2008- Last vehicle was built in Venezuela, the only country in which was built since 1997

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1989-1994 Truck


6th generation trucks roll out available with a brand new V6 engine. With the optional V6, the Toyota Truck is now capable of towing 3500 pounds while still returning excellent gas mileage. "Rusty Bed Syndrome" of the older trucks was solved at this point as well.

Changes in the Truck were few until 1994. Styling was upgraded regularly and new luxury options such as sport seats, air conditioning, and a CD player. The Truck remained as strong and versatile as ever, while still providing everything that a luxury car could.

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. One-piece cargo box walls eliminated the rust-prone seams found in earlier models. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

The Hilux (Seventh Generation)in South America was produced in Colombia since 1994 to 1998 by SOFASA (Only Petrol engine 2.4 cc), sold and export to(Venezuela and Ecuador). For Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay was produced in Argentina since 1997 to 2005 (Sarate Plant. Petrol and Diesel engine). Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru was imported from Japan since 1989 to 1997 (Petrol and Diesel Engine). South American 7-G Versions:

* Single Cab chasis (2wd, 4wd Just Petrol) (Colombia)
* Single Cab Long Bed (2wd,4wd, Petrol and Diesel) (All South American countries)
* Crew Cab (2wd,4wd, Petrol and Diesel)(All South American countries)

The Hilux in South America was produced in Colombia since 1998 to 2005 by SOFASA (Only Petrol engine 2.7 cc), sold and export to(Venezuela and Ecuador where Single Cab 2wd Chasis/Long Bed called Stout II). Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru was imported from Japan since 1998 to 2004 (Petrol 2.7 cc and Diesel Engine 2.8D). This generation not sold in Argentina and Brazil because the 7th Generation received facelift.

Also called Toyota 4x2
Toyota 4x4
Volkswagen Taro
Production start 1989
Production end 1994
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Hamura, Japan
Fremont, CaliforniaMade by SOFASA Colombia
Body style(s) 2 and 4-door truck
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 2.4L I4
3.0L V6
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase Regular Cab: 103.0 in (2616 mm)
Regular Cab Long Bed: 112.2 in (2850 mm)
Xtracab: 121.5 in (3086 mm)
Xtracab V6: 121.9 in (3096 mm)
Length Regular Cab: 174.6 in (4435 mm)
Regular Cab Long Bed: 186.0 in (4724 mm)
Xtracab: 193.1 in (4905 mm)
DLX Reg. Cab Long Bed 4WD: 185.8 in (4719 mm)
DLX Regular Cab 4WD: 174.4 in (4430 mm)
Width 66.5 in (1689 mm)
Height 1989-1992 Regular Cab: 60.8 in (1544 mm)
1989-1992 Regular Cab Long Bed: 60.6 in (1539 mm)
1989-1992 Xtracab 2WD: 61.0 in (1549 mm)
1989-1992 Regular Cab Long Bed 4WD: 67.1 in (1704 mm)
1989-1992 Xtracab 4WD: 67.3 in (1709 mm)
1993-94 Regular Cab: 62.6 in (1590 mm)
1993-94 Regular Cab: 62.8 in (1595 mm)
1993-94 Xtracab 4WD: 69.1 in (1755 mm)
1993-94 Regular Cab 4WD: 68.9 in (1750 mm)
Related 4Runner
Hilux Surf

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1990-1995 4Runner:


The 1990 model year 4Runner represented a fundamental departure from the first-generation model. Instead of an enhanced pickup truck, the new 4Runners featured a freshly designed body mounted on an existing frame. The difference is easily seen when comparing pickups and 4Runners of similar vintage: a 1984 4Runner looks remarkably similar to a 1984 Toyota pickup, whereas a 1990 4Runner shares only subtle styling details with the 1990 pickup.

Nearly all second generation 4Runners were 4-door models; however, from 1989 to 1992, a 2-door model was also produced. These models are similar to the 4-door models of the time in that the bodies were formed as a single unit, instead of the fiberglass tops used in the first-generation 4Runners. Two-door 4Runners from this era are extremely rare, and were discontinued in August 1992, probably due to higher importation duties and owner insurance costs.

Because the drivelines were still developed from the same source, however, available engines were identical. The same 2.4 L four cylinder (22RE) and 3.0 L V6 (3VZ) engines were available in rear wheel drive and four wheel drive layouts. The new 4Runner used the independent front suspension that had been developed on the previous generation. The older style gear driven transfer case was phased out, and both engines now had chain driven cases, probably to cut down cab noise and vibration.

The Hilux Surf version for the Japanese market was also available with a range of diesel engines, including a 2.4 L turbodiesel 2L-TE I4 up to 1993, followed by a 3.0 L turbodiesel 1KZ-TE I4. A small number were also made with a normally aspirated 2.8 L diesel 3L I4. A small number were also produced with a 2.0 L 3Y I4 naturally-aspirated gasoline engine.

Most other full-body SUVs produced at the time (e.g. Nissan Pathfinder, Ford Explorer) featured tailgates that opened upward with the glass closed. In contrast, the second generation 4Runner carried over the retractable-glass tailgate from the first generation. Opening these tailgates requires first retracting the rear window into the tailgate and then lowering the tailgate much like as on a pickup truck.

In 1992, the 4Runner received minor cosmetic updates, including modular headlamps instead of the increasingly outdated rectangular sealed beams. Additional cosmetic changes occurred between 1993 and 1995, the last year of the second generation.

Also called Toyota Hilux Surf
Production 1990–1995
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
2-door SUV
Engine(s) 2.0 L 3Y I4
2.4 L 22R-E I4
3.0 L 3VZ-E V6
2.4 L 2L-TE turbodiesel I4
2.8 L 3L diesel I4
3.0 L 1KZ-T turbodiesel I4
3.0 L 1KZ-TE turbodiesel I4
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 103.3 in (2624 mm)
Length 1990 & 1994-95: 176.0 in (4470 mm).
1991-93: 176.8 in (4491 mm).
Width 66.5 in (1689 mm)
Height 66.1 in (1679 mm)

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1993-1998 T100


The Toyota T100 was a mid-sized to full-sized pickup truck introduced by Toyota in late 1992 as a 1993 calendar year vehicle. Although Toyota claimed the truck was really meant as an alternative to the compact trucks, including its own Toyota Hilux, the T100 was criticized for being too small to appeal to buyers of full-size work trucks. Another drawback many considered was the lack of a V8 engine which Toyota proclaimed was planned to showcase the T100's advantage in fuel economy and true purpose - to offer a larger truck that drove, acted and "felt" like a compact. Even though this was Toyota's official marketing plan, rumours at the time claimed that Toyota was trying to acquire small block V8 engines from General Motors (305 cubic inch/5.0 liter and 350 cubic inch/5.7 liter) for use within the trucks. Whether or not this ever went beyond someone's imagination or actual talks, no one knows, but ultimately the T100 never got a V8 and this was a serious limiter to sales.

Although sales were slow at start, the T100 sales did reach into the mid 40,000 vehicles sold range (1996) in the United States. Although decent numbers, from Toyota's standpoint (at the time), General Motors pickup sales were roughly 700,000 per year, while Ford sales surged from 550,000 to nearly 850,000 and Dodge went from 100,000 to 400,000 with the introduction of the new Dodge Ram in 1994. Coincidentally or not, sales of the T100 fell approximately 30% when the new Ram went on the market half a year or so after the T100's launch.

Beyond the issues of size and horsepower the T100 did receive some praises from the media, acquiring J.D. Power and Associates Initial Quality Survey "Best Full-Size Pickup" award and the "Best of What's New" award by Popular Science magazine in its first year on the market. It should also be noted that the T100 was the first vehicle - car or truck - ever to receive an "Initial Quality Survey Award" in its first year of production. In 1994 (the truck's second year) and 1995 (the third) the T100 was again awarded "Best Full-Size Pickup in Initial Quality" by J.D. Power and Associates. In 1997 the T100 was awarded "Top Three Vehicles in Initial Quality - Full-Size Segment" once again by J.D. Power and Associates.

As Toyota firmly established itself in the North American compact truck market in the 1980s and 1990s, it seemed to many only logical that Toyota needed to capture part of the lucrative full-size truck market. Rumored for many years until finally becoming a reality in 1993, the first big Toyota truck boasted a full-size (8 ft) bed but retained the engine and suspension characteristics of a compact truck. It was a bit larger than the mid-size Dodge Dakota but still smaller than a typical full-size pickup. It gave the T100 a unique position within the truck ranks. Though economical and reliable, in the grand scheme of things it was not the greatest selling vehicle and had not captured as much of the market as Toyota had hoped. Although many of it purchasers would disagree many critics maintained the T100 was still too small, despite being bigger than Toyota's other truck, the Toyota Hilux and later the Tacoma.

When it was introduced, the T100 had one cab configuration, a regular cab, and one available engine, a 3.0 L V6 with 150 hp (112 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m) of torque. In 1994, a 2.7 L I4 engine with 150 hp (112 kW) (like the 3.0 V6) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque was added in the hopes new buyers would be drawn in with promises of greater fuel economy and a lower price (than previous models). Toyota ultimately realized there was no other alternative but to add more power to the truck and in 1995 Toyota added the 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque 3.4 L V6. An Xtra Cab model came along several months into the 1995 model year as well. The T100 received only minor changes throughout its run aside from the engine changes and the Xtra Cab addition. A driver-side airbag was installed in 1994 (a passenger-side air bag never became available) and larger 16" rims became the norm for most of the 4X4 models starting in 1997. It was evident by late 1996/ early 1997 that Toyota was already investing in its next truck (what ultimately became the Toyota Tundra). At the time (late 1990s) many believed, a revamped T100 was on the way (with the promise of a V8 engine) and there were some reports that altered V8 powered T100s were used as test-mules, but ultimately it never came to pass, and Toyota went back to the drawing board and the Toyota Tundra came to be.

Toyota Racing Development (TRD) introduced a supercharger for the 3.4 liter engine in 1997 and it became available for the T100, the Tacoma and the 4Runner with the 3.4 liter V6 (and later the Tundra). Horsepower jumped to the 260 hp (194 kW) range (depending of the generation of the supercharger) and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) to 265 lb·ft (359 N·m) of torque.

The T100 was manufactured and partially engineered by Toyota-subsidiary Hino. Three trim lines were offered: the base model, the DX, and the top-of-the-line SR5. The maximum towing capacity was 5,200 lb (2,360 kg) and the truck had a payload limit of 2,450 pounds. Although most trucks fell within the 1/2 ton realm, a 1 ton model was offered (in 2 wheel drive form) for several of its earlier years until finally being dropped because of a lack of interest.

All T100s were assembled in Tokyo, Japan. In late 1998 production moved to the United States with the opening of Toyota's new Tundra Gibson County, Indiana plant. Before moving production to the United States, the T100 was the last Japanese-built pickup made for North America. The US retail price of the T100 built entirely in Japan included a 25% import tariff. The T100 was discontinued in 1998 and replaced by the larger V8 powered Tundra. These trucks have however, become popular "used vehicle" purchases from both traditional Toyota and non-Toyota buyers because of its reliability track record and have maintained a strong resale value some fifteen years after its introduction.

Manufacturer Hino
Production 1993-1998
Assembly Hamura, Japan
Gibson County, Indiana, USA
Successor Toyota Tundra
Class Full-size pickup truck
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 2.7 L 3RZ-FE I4 150 hp (112 kW)
3.0 L 3VZ-E V6 150 hp (112 kW)
3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6 190 hp (142 kW)
TRD Supercharged 3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6 265 hp (198 kW)
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 121.8 in (3094 mm)
Length 209.1 in (5311 mm)
Width 75.2 in (1910 mm)
Height 1993-95 Regular Cab 2WD: 66.7 in (1694 mm)
1993-95 DX: 68.1 in (1730 mm)
1993-95 SR5 2WD: 70.1 in (1781 mm)
1993-95 Extended Cab: 71.1 in (1806 mm)
1996-98 Extended Cab 4WD: 71.6 in (1819 mm)
1996-98 Regular Cab: 67.2 in (1707 mm)
1996-98 Extended Cab 2WD: 68.6 in (1742 mm)
Fuel capacity 24 US gallons (90.8 L; 20.0 imp gal)

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1995-2004 Tacoma



he Tacoma name was introduced in 1995, originating from the worldwide Hilux. The Hilux was sold in the United States until 1995 (simply as a "Toyota Truck").

There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma: the 2.4 L four cylinder rated at 142 hp (106 kW) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) of torque, the 2.7 L four cylinder rated at 150 hp (112 kW) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque, and the 3.4 L six cylinder rated at 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque. The 2.4 L gave a highly useful 29 miles per US gallon (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) (hwy), the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg-imp) (hwy), and the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp) (hwy).

Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns. The 2.4 L and 3.4 L engines were available in this vehicle depending on options. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.

Four-wheel drive Tacomas had six-stud wheel lug patterns, which had been used on the prior pickups (pre-Tacoma trucks). The truck's frame is fully boxed until immediately after the front leaf spring mount bracket where is transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F (Asian code is 30-40LE). From 95-97 Single cab Tacomas had the option of a manual transmission with the 3.4 V6 engine. From 98 on, the single cabs only got a 2.7 or a 2.4 4-cyl from factory. TRD packages started in 98 (if the V6 engine was selected, you got a differential locker in the rear).

Prerunner models started in 98. They share the same front and rear suspension parts and geometry, frame, styling and engine options as the 4x4 Tacomas of this year range. Prerunner Tacomas also had the option of the TRD Off-Road package which (like the 4x4) got a rear differential locker if it was a V6 model (among other suspension variations). One downside is there was not option of a 5-speed transmission. The V6 Tacoma automatic transmissions were an A340E. Because of the similarities in the Prerunner and 4x4 models, it is possible to use stock parts to convert a Prerunner to a 4x4. However, in the online Toyota community this not advised.

In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold very well, attracting many young buyers. The first generation Tacoma underwent a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in 1998, and the second in 2001. The facelifts mainly entailed new headlights and grilles. Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions (coil-on-plug) in 1997 and in 1998 longer rear leaf springs. All 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect (ADD) system after the 2000 model year.

The only extra feature in 2001 was a new crew cab (four door) model added to the lineup. The crew cab featured four doors, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors. The extended cab featured a 6-foot (2 m) bed while the crew cab featured a 5-foot-5-inch (1.7 m) bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds, but most competitors shared this shortcoming.

In 2001, along with the front facelift, Toyota had also unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4 liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch (410 mm) alloy wheels, and a 5 speed manual transmission with Tokico Gas shocks. There were only 200 produced each month from 2001-2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, and Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger they also led the way against fullsize trucks.


Toyota introduces an all new pickup truck, designed in Calty, Southern California, and built in Fremont California (at NUMMI) - The Tacoma. The Tacoma featured brand new high performance engines. A 142-horsepower 2.4L four cylinder with 160 lb.-ft. was standard on the 2WD models, while the 4WD models offered a 150 hp. 2.7L four cylinder engine producing 177 lb.-ft. of torque. On both models, an optional 190 hp. 3.4L V6 engine with 220 lb.-ft. of torque was available. This engine would be shared with the T100.

The suspension was new as well. This redesigned suspension offered a coil spring double-wishbone configuration, which replaced the Hi-Trac torsion bar double wishbone suspension of the previous generation. The lower arm uses a closed cross-sectional structure that adds strength while reducing unsprung weight. Suspension travel on the 4WD models increased from 5.9 inches to 7.7 inches, improving both on and off road performance. Tread width on both 2WD and 4WD also increased, improving steering stability and ride comfort. The Tacoma continued to use the reliable leaf type rear suspension with refinements to layout design.

For safety, a standard driver-side airbag, center high mount stop light, adjustable seatbelt anchors, improved side-view mirrors, and optional four-wheel ABS were added. Additionally, the Tacoma received side door impact beams, and three-point, automatic and emergency locking retractor (ALR and ELR) seatbelts in outboard positions, with an ELR seatbelt on the driver's side.

While mechanically unchanged, the 1997 Tacoma gets a redesigned front-end. The headlights were faired into a new grille, and the whole assembly is more aerodynamic and stylish than before.

The 4WD models Tacoma now has an available locking rear differential, bucket seats on non-SR5 Xtracabs, and revised striping on all SR5s.

A passenger-side airbag is added one year prior to the Federal standard of 1999. For increased safety, the passenger-side airbag can be turned off with the ignition key. Accept for a redesigned sound system and the addition of new colors, the 2WD remains unchanged.

4WD models get interior changes including rotary HVAC controls, 2 additional 12 volt power outlets, and repositioned cupholders. Outside the Tacoma, a larger front bumper and restyled grille and headlights along with new overfenders give Tacoma a more aggressive look.

Mid-year, the Tacoma PreRunner is introduced. This new 2WD pickup combines the rugged styling and off-road ability of the 4WD with the affordability of the 2WD model. The PreRunner was developed in conjunction with Toyota Motorsport's successful desert racing truck program. Much of the suspension tuning and development work was done with the assistance of Toyota-drive Ivan "The Ironman" Stewart. The PreRunner shares identical exterior styling with all '98 4WD models. They are available only as Xtracab models with an automatic transmission and a 4 or 6 cylinder engine.

Enhancing the PreRunner and the 4WD off-road ability is an available Toyota Racing Development (TRD) Off-Road package. The package offers a rugged combination of front and rear Bilstein shock absorbers, locking rear differential on V6 models, progressive-rate front coil springs and rear leaf suspension, modified camber rear springs, a larger front stabilizer bar, 31x10.50R15 white lettered Goodyear tires, 15x7" alloy wheels, black overfenders, and special Off-Road graphics.

The Tacoma PreRunner is available in a Regular Cab model with an automatic transmission equipped with the 2.7L 4 cylinder engine.

Standard daytime running lights are added to all models equipped with ABS. Also, the Tacoma StepSide, a sporty package that added a youthful alternative to the Tacoma lineup.

The Tacoma enters a new model year with an aggressive new styling change which include a new front fascia featuring a vertical grille, raised hood, new multi-reflector headlamps, and jeweled tail lamps. Inside, tether anchor brackets have been added to supplement child restraint systems. Also, several new upgrade packages, and 4 new exterior colors.

The Double Cab is introduced. The Tacoma Double Cab delivers the cargo hauling capability of a pickup, the passenger roominess and comfort of an SUV and rugged styling that makes an aggressive statement. The Double Cab is offered in SR5 and Limited trim levels with available off-road package in the 2WD PreRunner series with a 4 or 6 cylinder engine. It offers 11 inches of ground clearance, and a 61" cargo bed. It's 4 large conventional doors open to a well appointed and roomy interior, featuring spacious front and rear seating and a 60/40 fold-down rear bench with 3-point outboard belts.

The Tacoma S-Runner is introduced as a new Sport Truck. The S-Runner is offered in a 4x2 Xtracab trim level with a 5-speed manual overdrive transmission and powered exclusively by Tacoma's 190-hp V6 engine. Performance is enhanced with a low-to-the-ground sports tuned suspension with Tokico gas shock absorbers and stiffer springs, sway bars and bushings. Ground clearance is reduced by 2 inches from the standard 4x2. The

S-Runner boasts a full color-keyed exterior that includes the grille, lower valence panel, front and rear bumper, overfenders, and outside door handles and mirrors. For an extreme appearance, a dealer-installed Toyota Racing Development (TRD) body kit is available.

The color-keyed exterior is complemented by an aggressive interior feel which includes standard amenities such as front sports and power lumbar driver seat, front seat for and aft adjustable headrests, leather steering wheel and shift knob, tachometer with twin trip meters, AM/FM/Cassette audio with 6 speakers, tilt steering wheel, variable intermittent wipers and a rear console box.

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* 1998 - Toyota introduced the 100 Land Cruiser to replace the 80. At launch the UZJ100 featured the first eight-cylinder engine (4.7-litre 32-valve 2UZ-FE petrol engine) in a Toyota four wheel drive. Other engines in non-US markets included the 1HD-FT/E turbodiesel. For the first time in Land Cruiser history, the 100 Series featured independent front suspension for increased on-road handling. In Africa and certain other markets, Toyota offered a 105 model, which retained the solid front axle for more demanding off-road use. The Land Cruiser won Australian 4WD Monthly's "4x4 Of The Year" award for the third time in a row. It was called the Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK until 2003.

* 1999 - In 1999 Toyota worked with Sega to produce an advertising tie-in for the Land Cruiser 100/Cygnus and other vehicles using the Sega Dreamcast. These featured detailed 3d models of the cars and other promotional video.[1]

* 2000 - 50th Anniversary of the Land Cruiser. Total global production to date is 3.72 million vehicles. 90 Prados get active traction control (Active TRAC), vehicle skid control equipment (VSC), and electronic brake force distribution (EBD) systems as standard equipment in some markets.

* 2002 - All new 120 Prado is released and the 100 is restyled. The centre of gravity was reduced by 30 mm, ensuring better stability and dual fuel tanks with a total capacity of 180 L in the new 120 Prado. Downhill Assist Control and Hill-start Assist Control enhance the vehicle's stability under difficult off-road conditions.

* 2007 - Toyota unveils the Lexus LX570 URJ200 at the 2007 New York Auto Show.

Also called Lexus LX,
Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon (UK 1998-2003)
Production 1998-2007
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara, Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Engine(s) 4.7 L V8 177 kW (237 hp) [Petrol],
4.2 L I6 146 kW (196 hp) [Diesel],
3.0 L I4 [turbodiesel]
Transmission(s) 6-speed manual,
5-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,790 mm (110 in)
Length 4,715 mm (185.6 in)
Width 1,875 mm (73.8 in)
Height 1,905 mm (75.0 in)
Curb weight 1,870 kg (4,100 lb) - 1,960 kg (4,300 lb)
Fuel capacity 80 l (21 US gal)

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2000-2006 Tundra


Publicly introduced in May 1999 as a 2000 model, the Tundra prototypes and "show trucks" were initially known as T150s. However, Ford and automotive pundits felt that this name was too close to the market-leader Ford F-150, and following a lawsuit by Ford, the production truck was renamed the Tundra (Toyota claimed they never truly intended to use the T150 name in actual production). Toyota then countersued Ford regarding the name of their then-released Lincoln LS sedan, arguing it was too close to that of the Lexus LS.

The Tundra was slightly larger than the T100, but still suffered the perception of being too small and carlike to pose a serious threat to the domestic pickup trucks. With a production capacity of 120,000, sales were double the rate of the T100. The Tundra also had the largest initial vehicle sales for Toyota in its history (up until that time). It garnered impressive honors, including Motor Trend's Truck of the Year award for 2000 and Best Full- Size Truck from Consumer Reports. Built in a new Toyota plant in Princeton, Indiana, with 65 percent domestic content, the Tundra showed that Toyota was serious about closing the gap on the Big Three.

Engine choices available in the Tundra were a 24V 3.4 liter V6 engine that produced 190 horsepower (140 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque and a 32 valve 4.7 liter V8 engine that produced 245 horsepower (183 kW) and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) of torque. A Toyota Racing Development (TRD) derived supercharger was already available for the 3.4 liter V6 that bumped horsepower to the 260 horsepower (190 kW) range and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque range, but TRD introduced a supercharger for the V8 engine late into its second year of production that pushed the V8 numbers to the mid 300 horsepower (220 kW) range and torque to the 400 lb·ft (550 N·m) range. Although the V6 supercharger is still widely available, the V8 supercharger is rarer and harder to find because of TRD stopping production of the device because of issues of its compatibility with the engine.

The grille was updated for 2003 and the Double Cab version was added to the lineup in 2004. The Double Cab model was a true crew cab with four normal doors, with interior and exterior details copied from the Toyota Sequoia. Its bed is nearly 5 inches (130 mm) longer than the competing Nissan Titan or Ford F-150. It is also 13 inches (330 mm) longer and 3 inches (76 mm) taller than the Regular and Access cab versions. A new engine was introduced in 2005: a 4.0 liter V6 rated at 236 horsepower (176 kW) and 266 ft·lbf (361 N·m) of torque, and the existing 4.7 liter V8 was updated with Toyota's VVT-i variable valve timing technology and was rated at 271 horsepower (202 kW) and 313 ft·lbf (424 N·m) of torque. The 5-speed manual gave way to a 6-speed manual, and a 5-speed automatic replaced the 4-speed. With a towing capacity of just 6,800 lb (on the Double Cabs) and a 7,100 pounds towing capacity on the Access Cabs and Regular Cabs with a V8 engine, it still did not have enough muscle to compete with the heavy-duty offerings of the Big Three and Nissan. Domestic truck aficionados still derided it as a "7/8 scale" pickup.

Production 2000–2006
Body style(s) 2- and 4-door truck
Engine(s) 3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6
190 horsepower (2000-2004)

4.0 L 1GR-FE V6
236 horsepower (2005-2006)
4.7 L 2UZ-FE V8
245 horsepower (2000-2004), 271 horsepower (2005-2006)
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual (2000-2004)
4-speed automatic (2000-2004)
6-speed manual (2005-2006)
5-speed automatic (2005-2006)
Wheelbase 128.3 in (3259 mm)
Double Cab: 140.5 in (3569 mm)
Length 2000-04: 217.5 in (5525 mm)
Double Cab: 230.1 in (5845 mm)
2005-06: 218.3 in (5545 mm)
Width 75.2 in (1910 mm)
Double Cab & Limited: 79.3 in (2014 mm)
Limited Double Cab: 79.7 in (2024 mm)
Height SR5 V8 4WD: 71.1 in (1806 mm)
2000-04 SR5 Access Cab 4WD: 71.5 in (1816 mm)
SR5 Stepside Access Cab 4WD: 71.3 in (1811 mm)
Limited 4WD: 71.7 in (1821 mm)
2WD: 70.5 in (1791 mm)
SR5 Access Cab 2WD: 70.7 in (1796 mm)
Limited 2WD: 70.9 in (1801 mm)
Double Cab 4WD: 74.4 in (1890 mm)
Double Cab Limited 4WD: 75.0 in (1905 mm)
Double Cab Limited 2WD: 74.6 in (1895 mm)
Double Cab 2WD: 74.0 in (1880 mm)
Curb weight 3935–4215 lb (1785–1912 kg)

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1994-2000 RAV4


The RAV4 was originally based on the Corolla platform, and was offered in both two and four-door versions. In the US, a 2.0 L straight-4 producing 120 hp (89 kW) was offered. Both Front wheel drive and Four-wheel drive were available, and the RAV4 could be had with either a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission. In 1998, the RAV4 was slightly restyled on the front and rear fascias, and a soft-top two-door was made available exclusively in the US market. Horsepower was increased slightly to 127. In 1999, the two-door hardtop was dropped from the American lineup, leaving the 4-door and soft-top models.

One interesting version, the RAV4 EV, was an all-electric 'zero-emission' model offered for sale in small quantities in California. These models came with a 60,000-mile (97,000 km) battery warranty, and the vehicles still command high prices on the used-car market. One sold in 2006 on eBay for over US$50,000.

A significant criticism of the gasoline-powered first generation RAV4s, often called '4.1s', was that they were underpowered, and had relatively poor fuel economy via their 3SFE engines that were designed for earlier Camrys and 1987-1989 Toyota Celica GT, 1990-1993 S-R and Z-R, as well as 1994-1999 SS-I. Later generations of RAV4s, the so-called '4.2s' and '4.3s', have addressed this concern.

Also called Toyota RAV4 EV
Production 1994–2000 (Gas-powered RAV4)
1997-2003 (EV)
Assembly Toyota, Aichi, Japan
Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door SUV
4-door SUV
2-door convertible
Engine(s) 2.0 L I4
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 4-Door: 2410 mm (94.9 in)
2-Door: 2200 mm (86.6 in)
Length 1998-2000 4-Door: 4160 mm (163.8 in)
1998-99 2-Door: 3750 mm (147.6 in)
1994-97 2-Door: 3740 mm (147.2 in)
1994-97 4-Door: 4150 mm (147.6 in)
Width 1695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1994-97 2-Door FWD: 1646 mm (64.8 in)
4-Door FWD: 1650 mm (65.0 in)
1994-97 2-Door 4WD: 1655 mm (65.2 in)
4-Door AWD & 1998-2000 2-Door: 1661 mm (65.4 in)
Fuel capacity 58 L (15.3 US gal)

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2001-2005 RAV4


The second generation RAV4 went on sale in the middle of 2000, and came in base Edge and upmarket Cruiser models (model designations may vary according to market), in both 3- and 5-door configurations. The main differentiation between the two models was in appearance. Edge models came with unpainted grey bumpers and side cladding, mirrors, and door handles, and featured steel rims. Cruiser models gained body-coloured (painted) bumpers and moldings, mirrors, and door handles, alloy wheels, and ABS brakes. All models came equipped with a brand-new 2.0 litre 4-cylinder engine featuring VVT (variable valve timing), resulting in improved power and torque, as well as fuel consumption. Permanent all-wheel-drive was a feature. Options were ABS brakes (on the Edge), and air conditioning (on all models).

The second generation RAV4 was originally offered in a number of trim levels: NV was 2-wheel drive, while NRG, GX, and VX were permanent 4-wheel drive with differing levels of equipment.[2] It continued on the Corolla platform. Although the RAV4 was available as a two-door in Europe, Asia and Australia, the American model was now only available in a four-door configuration. A 2.0 L I4 engine producing 148 hp (110 kW) and a D4-D diesel engine were available. Some RAV4s came with anti-lock braking system, electronic stability control, air conditioning, a height-adjustable driver's seat, cruise control, a six-speaker CD stereo and power windows, mirrors and seats. A sport package added a mesh grille, hood scoop, color-keyed door handles, a roof rack, silver sport pedals, heated mirrors, gray-painted bumpers and fender flares, and sport fabric seats. Other options included alloy wheels, heated seats, a sunroof and keyless entry. 16-inch wheels were standard; larger tires were available on all wheel drive models.

In late 2003, the RAV4 was given a styling update, improved equipment, and, in certain markets, a new engine. The RAV4's 2.0 litre engine was upgraded with a new 2.4 litre VVT engine, producing 9% more power (120 kW) and 17% more torque. Fuel economy improved by over 2%. The base Edge was renamed CV, and gained standard air conditioning (previously an option). The CV also received painted bumpers, which came in either silver or body-coloured shades, depending on the body colour. In addition, the model range was given a subtle facelift, largely comprising of a new front bumper with circular fog lights.

In 2005, a new "CV Sport" model was added to the range, which included a non-functional bonnet (hood) scoop, giving the RAV4 a more aggressive appearance. The CV Sport model was short-lived, lasting only a year, and was introduced primarily to stimulate sales until the new model arrived in early 2006.

The second generation RAV4 enjoyed enormous success in Australia, where it became the best-selling SUV in the country in 2001, overtaking it's rival, the Honda CR-V, for the first time.
Toyota RAV4 2 door

Notably, the second-generation RAV4 had the highest proportion of female drivers among all makes and models in the United States with the possible exception of the Volkswagen New Beetle, according to 2003-04 registration and survey data.

Production 2001–2005
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Obu, Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
2-door SUV (Not for North America
Engine(s) 2.0 L I4
2.0 L diesel I4
2.4 L I4
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2490 mm (98.0 in)
Length 2004-05: 4230 mm (166.6 in)
2001-03: 4193 mm (165.1 in)
Width 1735 mm (68.3 in)
Height 2004-05: 1680 mm (66.1 in)
2001-03: 1650 mm (64.9 in)
Fuel capacity 56 L (14.7 US gal)

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2001-2007 Highlander


Called the Highlander in North America, the Kluger shared the Toyota Camry platform with its Lexus RX/Toyota Harrier cousin and came in five and seven-seat configurations, and became a sales success for Toyota in a number of markets across the world. The Kluger came standard with front wheel drive and offered all wheel drive as an option. The Kluger was not meant for serious off roading, unlike competitors such as the Jeep Grand Cherokee, Chevrolet TrailBlazer, and Toyota's own 4Runner. Although it was originally longer than the 1996-2002 4Runner, the Kluger was surpassed in length by the 4Runner in 2003.

The Highlander was available in three trim lines in the United States: the Base model, the Sport model, and the Limited model. The Base and Limited models were present when the Highlander was initially introduced, while the Sport model was introduced in March 2006.

In 2004 the wheels on the Limited trim changed from a 6-spoke, to a 5-spoke alloy. The base-model Highlander rims also changed from steel-rims to the alloy rims that were on the 01-03 Highlander Limited and B-Package.

The Kluger was available in three trim lines in Australia: the CV model, the CVX model, and the Grande model. A limited edition CV Sport model was also released in 2006. There was no hybrid model available in Australia. The only engine offered was the 3.3L 3MZ-FE V6.


* 2001-2003 2.4 L 2AZ-FE I4, 160 hp (119 kW)
* 2001-2003 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6, 220 hp (164 kW)
* 2004-2007 3.3 L 3MZ-FE V6, 230 hp (172 kW)

The 3.0L engine was able to propel the Kluger from 0-60 mph in approximately 8.8 seconds. In 2004 the Kluger was given a new 3.3L V6 engine to compete with the more powerful V6 offerings from its competitors, mainly the Nissan Murano and the Honda Pilot. The 3.3L engine made it possible for the Kluger to reach 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.8 seconds.

In addition to the 3.3L engine, 2004 V6-powered models were equipped with a new 5-speed automatic transmission, replacing a 4-speed automatic transmission, while the 4-cylinder models continue to use the old 4-speed automatic transmission. This year also saw the introduction of the optional third row seat. The unibody was slightly modified behind the second row seats to include a depression on the trunk floor to accommodate the optional third row seating. On models without third row seating, the depression on the trunk floor was turned into a storage compartment. (Prior to 2004 the spare tire was accessible from inside the vehicle where the third row seating would subsequently be located; beginning in 2004 the spare tire is accessible from underneath the vehicle.) Subtle changes to the front grille, front and rear bumpers, and headlights round-out the major changes for 2004.

The Sport and hybrid models each had a distinctive grille design, differentiating themselves from the non-Sport, non-hybrid models. Wheel styling also serves to differentiate the various models -- the hybrid sports a unique twin-spoke design.

The Kluger was available with front wheel drive or full-time four wheel drive. Beginning in 2006, Highlanders sold in Canada are offered only in a V6 four-wheel drive configuration. Hybrid models are available with part-time four-wheel drive which Toyota refers to as "4WD-i" where the rear wheels are powered by the separate electric motor.

Base models are equipped with a limited slip differential, while up-scale models have a stability control system.

The Japanese Kluger was released with a centre console integrated with the dashboard, while the North American Highlander initially lacked this integrated centre console. The integrated centre console was introduced in all U.S. Highlanders and in Canadian Limited Highlanders in the 2002 model year, and in all Canadian Highlanders in the 2003 model year. However, for these early Highlanders without the integrated centre console, a smaller non-integrated stand-alone centre console was available as an option, which was installed at the factory or could be installed by the dealer.

Production 2001–2007
Assembly Kyūshū, Japan
Engine(s) 2.4L 155 hp (116 kW) I4
3.0L 220 hp (160 kW) V6
3.3L 230 hp (170 kW) V6
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic w/3.3L
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 106.9 in (2715 mm)
Length 2001: 184.3 in
2002-03: 184.4 in (4684 mm)
2004-07: 184.6 in (4689 mm)
Hybrid: 185.6 in (4714 mm)
Width 71.9 in (1826 mm)
Height 2001-05 4WD: 66.5 in (1689 mm)
2001-05 Limited 4WD: 68.7 in (1745 mm)
2003-05 FWD: 66.1 in (1679 mm)
2003-05 Limited FWD: 68.3 in (1735 mm)
2006-07 FWD: 67.9 in (1725 mm)
2006-07 4WD & FWD Hybrid: 68.3 in (1735 mm)
4WD Hybrid: 68.9 in (1750 mm)
Curb weight 3,784 lb (1,716 kg)
Fuel capacity 19.2 US gallons (72.7 L; 16.0 imp gal)